Genus: Passilora 9500 Species)
* Species: Passiflora edulis Sims – Passion fruit
Forms: 1. Passiflora edulis the purple passion fruit
2. Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa, the yellow passion fruit
Other names for both forms are; granadilla (Spanish)
The purple form may be called: purple, red, or black granadilla.
The yellow form is called: yellow passion fruit (Hawaii) of golden passion fruit Australia)
Origin and Distribution:
The purple passion fruit originates from Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina. The yellow passion fruit is of uncertain origin – probably coming from the Amazon basin of it may be some type of hybrid.
Producing Countires include:
Brazil, Australia, New Zealand, Taiwan, Kenya, South Africa, India, Java, Sumattra, Malaya, Phillippines, Ivory Coast, Zimbabwe, Jamaica, Uganda etc.
The yellow form has a more vigorous vine and generally larger fruit than the purple. The purple passion fruit on the other hand is less acidic, has a richer flavour and aroma and has a higher proportion of juice 35 – 38%. The purple form has black seed; the yellow brown seeds. Several cultivars are being grown, examples being grown, examples being, Australian purple; common purple; Pratt hybrid, Noels special (yellow, very prolific with good production and quality of fruits) Lacy; Purple-gold; (8 Brazillian cultivars); Hawaiiana; Brasilera amanilla and Brasilera rosada. Some hybrids have been produced in different places e.g. Srilanka, Uganda. Uganda has produced Kawanda Hybrid very vigorous, big size of purple color, with some aroma and acidic taste. Some of the hybrids may be reddish purple and other may have tinge of yellow.
The purple passion fruit is sub-tropical and is grown in cooler areas. The yellow Passion Fruit is tropical and is grown in warmer areas. Rainfall should be at least 35” (900mm) but producing areas range between 40 – 100 inches (400 – 2500mm) Kawanda hybrid is more widely adapted.
Soil: Different types of soils are suitable for growing the crop but height to heavy sandy loams of medium texture are the most suitable with a pH range between 6.5 – 7.5. The soils must be well drained to reduce the incidence of color rot.
Vines are usually grown from seed especially for the yellow form, the seedling variation helping in cross-pollination and overcomes the problem of self – sterility.
Seeds are removed from the fruit, washed of mucellage, dried a little and should be planted immediately. Grafting is employed in the propagation of hybrids using the yellow passion fruit as rootstock, which is resistant to nematode and soil diseases. When grafting, the scions should be taken from healthy young vines – not mature vines, Grafting is mostly done by whip technique. Due to the collar rot disease, Yellow passion fruits from Lira and Nakasongola are the only ones recommended.
The selected piece of land is cleared of trees, tree stumps, vegetation in preparation of ploughing. If perennial seeds are present these should be sprayed against using some systemic herbicide like round-up, Dalaaport etc. and time must be allowed for the chemical to reach the underground parts to effect a good kill of the grass. This process takes 6 – 8 weeks.
Ploughing is done again followed by one or two harrowings depending on the condition of the soil. The land should be leveled finally.
Depending on the type of passion fruit to be grown the land is marked out
for both the planting holes and “training” posts. (trellis)
a) Yellow/Purple passion fruit:
Space 6 ft (1.8m between rows and 10ft (3m) between plants within the row.
b) Kawanda Hybrid:
Space 10ft (3m) between rows and 40ft (13m) between plants with row
Yellow/Purple passion fruit:
Vertical Fence posts 10ft long 4 – 6 diameter are fixed in holes dug to 2ft depth and spaced 20ft (6m) apart.
Kawanda Hybrid Passion fruit:
The vertical posts are at lease 1ft long and at least 6” in diameter. They are spaced 20 ft (6m) in the rows
Wire, at lease No. 10 gauge, is strained over the fence posts which affords support for the creeping vine.
The planting holes should be prepared at least a month in advance of planting. Top soil should be separated from sub soil. The top soil is enriched with manure (compost and ½ kg single super phosphorate) before it is returned into the planting hole.
This should be done at the start of or during the rainy season, otherwise watering is to be done. If the seedling/rooted cuttings are enclosed in polyethylene sleeves, these should be removed. The seedling is planted and the soil firmed around it and the hole is filled up just to leave a shallow basin around it.
Staking should be provided at the time of filling the hole and planting the plants, which would be firm to give a support the growing vine.